Perceived Thoughts and Tweets: Progression of NEP 2020

 

Saket Ranjan Praveer1, Baba Gnankumar P2, M. K. Baby3

1Professor, School of Management, Kristu Jayanti College, Bengaluru.

2Professor, School of Management, Kristu Jayanti College, Bengaluru.

3Professor and Head, School of Management, Kristu Jayanti College, Bengaluru.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: saketwsu@gmail.com, gnanakumar@kristujayanti.com, mk.baby@kristujayanti.com

 

ABSTRACT:

The New Education Policy (NEP) 2020 is a landmark policy that aims at overhauling the education system in India. It has met with mixed reactions from students, with some praising its ambitious goals and others expressing concerns about its implementation. This research uses social media analysis to understand students' perspectives on the NEP in its early stages of implementation. The study analysed social media posts of undergraduate students studying under the NEP in selected institutions of Karnataka. The findings of the research highlight the evolving nature of student ideas, indicating a growing emphasis on social responsibility in their thinking. The most prominent keywords extracted from the social media posts were digital literacy, gender sensitisation, social responsibility, eliminate rote learning (experiential learning), multi-disciplinary learning and extracurricular activities.

 

KEYWORDS: NEP, Digital Literacy, Gender Sensitisation, Social Responsibility, Eliminate Rote Learning, Sentimental Analysis, Educational Reforms.

 

 


1. INTRODUCTION:

The National Education Policy (NEP) in India has undergone significant changes in the past three years. The National Education Policy (NEP) was approved by the Indian government in July 2020 and has been in the implementation phase since then. It aims at transforming the Indian Education System by introducing major changes such as a new curriculum framework, flexible learning models, emphasis on vocational education and digital education among others. The NEP is supposed to promote a holistic approach to education that includes the development of life skills and "21st century skills" such as critical thinking, problem-solving and communication.

 

This is intended to equip students with the skills they need to succeed in a rapidly changing job market. The NEP is expected to have a significant impact on the higher education system in India. Some of the key changes, proposed by the policy, include introduction of a four-year undergraduate program with multiple exit options, emphasis on vocational education and skill development, increase in the use of technology in education, establishment of a National Research Foundation to promote research and innovation and encouragement of foreign universities to set up campuses in India.

 

There are several challenges that are expected to arise during the implementation of NEP in higher education institutions. One of the primary challenges is the lack of infrastructure and resources needed to implement the policy effectively. Additionally, there may be resistance from stakeholders who are comfortable with the existing system and may not be willing to adapt to the changes proposed by NEP. There may also be challenges related to the coordination and collaboration required between different institutions and bodies involved in the implementation process. Karnataka is the first state to implement NEP in 2021 in the higher educational institutions (Express, 2021) followed by Madhya Pradesh in the same month and later Uttar Pradesh. This the rationale for selecting Karnataka as the research avenue. The state government of Karnataka has announced various initiatives to implement the policy, including the establishment of a task force to oversee its implementation. Under NEP 2020, there were significant changes in the curriculum and pedagogy in higher education institutions in Karnataka. The policy emphasises a multidisciplinary approach, flexibility in choosing subjects, and promotes the integration of vocational education. The state government has already started working on revamping the curriculum in higher education as per the NEP guidelines. The government established a new regulatory body called the Karnataka Higher Education Regulatory Authority (KHERA) to regulate higher education institutions in the state. The NEP replaces the 34-year-old National Policy on Education (NPE) of 1986 and aims to address the evolving needs of India's diverse population. It emphasizes equitable access to quality education, promoting multidisciplinary learning, fostering critical thinking, and preparing students for the challenges of the 21st century. However, the transition from policy formulation to effective implementation was a complex process in Karnataka. This study seeks to understand the theoretical foundations of the NEP and assess how these principles have been translated into on-ground actions during the early years of its execution.

 

2. KNOWLEDGE GAP:

The research reviews on the NEP 2020 provide valuable insights into its potential benefits and challenges, as well as the key factors that will determine its success. Prakash, Singh, and Singh (2021) argue that the NEP 2020 has the potential to transform India's future generation by providing access, equity, affordability, accountability, and quality education. However, its successful implementation requires addressing structural challenges and execution loopholes. Rajeshwari (2022) examined the role of faculty competencies in the emergence of the NEP 2021, finding a relationship between competencies and the policy's success. Sac (2021) analysed the challenges to the mission of gender and social equity as per the NEP 2020, providing creative ways and techniques to overcome the challenges and create an inclusive and equal educational system. Mahesha, Raj, and Rajeshwari (2022) studied the implications of the NEP 2020 on Open Distance Learning (ODL), finding that the policy emphasizes digital technology, flexibility and customization, and quality assurance. Inamdar and Parveen (2020) argue that the NEP 2020 aims to improve higher education in India, but there is a need to facilitate teachers rather than be demanding. Padmanabha (2023) argues that the NEP 2020 places the teacher at the centre of reforms and that reflective journals are an effective tool for promoting reflection in pre-service teachers. Saithal and Aithal (2019) analysed the NEP 2020 proposal, finding both strengths and weaknesses, and providing suggestions for effective implementation. Panditrao and Panditrao (2020) discussed the salient features of the NEP 2020, with a focus on higher education and its implementation. Yenugu (2022) stated that the NEP 2020 is ambitious and could transform Indian higher education, but implementation will require significant commitment from all stakeholders. Mamonova (2017) found that teachers in management institutes hold positive perceptions of the NEP 2020, but face challenges related to resources, infrastructure, training, and resistance from some stakeholders.

 

However, this research aims to analyse the sentiments of the students after two years of implementation.

 

3. OBJECTIVE:

The primary objective of this research is to investigate the key principles of the National Education Policy (NEP) and analyse their impact on the first three years of implementation in India. The specific objectives of the study are:

1      To identify and analyse the students’ perception after the initial stages of NEP implementation.

2      To assess the early outcomes and challenges faced during the initial phase of NEP implementation.

3      To offer insights and recommendations for further enhancing the effectiveness of the NEP.

 

4. THOUGHTS OF NEP SELECTED FOR THE STUDY:

The development of the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) has started to reshape the way subjects are taught, emphasizing critical thinking and practical skills. The NEP advocates for a shift in assessment practices. It encourages formative and continuous assessment over summative examinations. This change aims to reduce the pressure on students and promote a deeper understanding of subjects. At the introductory stages, it is expected that the NEP will bring about positive changes in the education system and provide more opportunities for students to pursue their interests and careers. This research aims to identify the perception of the students in the following core curriculum established under NEP.

 

The activities introduced under the NEP include digital literacy, gender sensitization, social responsibility in the curriculum, elimination of rote learning, implementation of extra-curricular activities, and introduction of value-added courses under the mainstream.

Digital literacy equips students with essential skills to navigate the digital world. They learn how to find information, critically assess online content, and use technology for research and communication. It empowers students to access a vast array of educational resources, which can aid in self-directed learning (Mistry, 2022).

 

Gender sensitization fosters a more inclusive and equitable society. Students learn to challenge gender stereotypes and biases, contributing to a fairer and more just world. It helps students develop empathy and respect for individuals of all genders, leading to healthier interpersonal relationships. Gender-sensitive education can help reduce instances of gender-based discrimination and harassment (Chowdhury, 2022).

 

Social Responsibility encourages students to engage in civic activities and community service, fostering a sense of responsibility toward their communities and society. It promotes ethical decision-making by encouraging students to consider the impact of their actions on society and the environment. Social responsibility education can instil a global perspective, helping students understand and address pressing global issues (Sudhakar and Mareesh, 2023).

 

By shifting away from rote learning, students gain a deeper understanding of concepts and subjects. They learn to think critically and solve problems. Rote learning stifles creativity, while a more holistic approach encourages students to think creatively, innovate, and apply their knowledge to real-world situations. Rote learning often leads to stress and anxiety. Eliminating it can create a more relaxed and enjoyable learning environment (Pandeyand Tyagi, 2021).

 

Extra-curricular activities, such as sports, arts, music, and clubs, contribute to the holistic development of students. They can discover and nurture their talents and interests. Participation in extra-curricular activities teaches students valuable time management skills, which are essential for balancing academics and other pursuits. These activities provide opportunities for students to interact with peers, fostering the development of social skills, teamwork, and leadership qualities (Dubey et al, 2022).

 

Value-added courses offer students the chance to acquire additional skills that can complement their main academic stream. This diversification can make them more versatile in their careers. Such courses often focus on practical skills and industry-specific knowledge, making students more job-ready upon graduation. Value-added courses can help students discover new interests and passions, contributing to personal growth and a well-rounded education. (Shukla et al, 2022).

These activities embedded in the curriculum and educational system as per NEP benefit students by equipping them with essential skills, fostering a sense of responsibility and social awareness, promoting critical thinking, and enhancing their overall development. Education that goes beyond traditional rote learning and includes digital literacy, gender sensitization, social responsibility, extracurricular activities, and value-added courses is more likely to prepare students not only for academic success but also for active and responsible participation in society (Mythiri et al., 2023).

 

Hence, we use to find out the perception of the students about the activities discussed above under NEP, using sentimental analysis

 

5. METHODOLOGY:

Social media can highlight both positive and negative aspects of the policy, impacting how students perceive it. The social media posts of the UG students studying under the NEP have been used for the analysis. The reviews authenticity has been measured based on the text mining process developed by Netzer et al. (2012). Netzer et al. (2012) created a positioning map for the car attributes from the online message using supervised learning. In this study, the same procedure is used to position the attributes. The text mining apparatus is used to extract primary keywords in the first step. After identifying the most prominent keywords, various social media podcasts by the students from selected institutes were compared within. The prominent key words are digital literacy, gender sensitisation, social responsibility, eliminate rote learning (experiential learning), multi-disciplinary learning and extracurricular activities   In the final stage, the data gathered are analysed with multidimensional scaling. The sub-stages of the first stage include five steps.

 

Step 1. Downloading:

The Web pages containing the podcasts of students studying at the institutions of Karnataka in four social media (LinkedIn, Facebook, Instagram and Twitter) are downloaded from a given forum site in HTML format and segmented into two groups based on the years 2021 and 2022. We download 4234 reviews. It includes social media podcasts of the students quoted with key word Karnataka and joining period from 2021 to 2022.

 

Step 2. Cleaning:

HTML tags and non-text information such as images and commercial advertisements are removed from downloaded files. By this stage reviews were filtered to 2141.

 

Step 3. Information Extraction:

Messages are analysed to extract product terms and product attributes. The attributes are extracted using key-word extraction ie., digital literacy, gender sensitization, social responsibility, eliminate rote learning (experiential learning), multi-disciplinary learning and extracurricular activities.

 

Step 4. Chunking:

The text is broken up into threads, messages, and sentences that provide information about various attributes such as expertise, content management, ease to use, commitment and value to learning. The equivalent meaning of attributes has been identified based on the online standard webster dictionary (https://www.webster-dictionary.org/). Prominent keywords based on the attributes have been found out. Keywords that are not significantly correlated with the attributes are filtered out (e.g.- Students enrolled in PG). Hence, the total reviews are filtered down to 1532.

 

Step 5. Identification of Semantic Relationships:

The relationship between products and attributes sentiment of the relationship has been extracted. KH-Coder, a quantitative textual analysis programme to detect the attributes and their rating, has been used. All capital letters in students’ podcasts were converted to lowercase during the pre-processing step and stopped words that were irrelevant to the analysis.  Postpositional Indicator (POS) tagger has been used to annotate nouns in customer comments (Archak et al., 2011; Hu and Liu, 2004). A postpositional indicator (POS) can be identified by identifying the Kia Seltos using Hu and Liu's (2004) technique. According to the student's satisfaction ratings, each of the attributes listed represents the level of relevance to them, while the proportion of each attribute is indicative of how important each attribute is to them (Albayrak and Caber, 2013; Mikulić and Prebežac, 2008; Busacca and Padula, 2005; Stringam and Gerdes, 2010).

 

Sensitivity of the analyses has been tested to alternative co-occurrence and similarity measures using the Lift ratio. The final reviews were tested with sentiment analysis using Meaning Cloud software.

 

Table shows the thoughts and cumulative positive rate of the thoughts. The table provides a summary of various educational thoughts or initiatives, their linkage to events, the number of associated social media tweets, and the cumulative positivity rates associated with these tweets. These metrics suggest the impact and students’ perception of these initiatives in social media.

 

Table -1 Positivity Rate of the thoughts

Thoughts

Events linked

Social Media Tweets

Cumulative Positivity Rate

Marginal Increase over 2021

Digital Literacy

15

84

73.34

8.23

Gender Sensitisation

12

67

79.45

4.24

Social Responsibility

32

468

81.33

9.34

Eliminate Rote Learning

64

523

78.24

14.56

Multi-Disciplinary Learning

4

42

67.25

16.24

Assessment of Extracurricular Activities

65

348

84.42

21.72

Total

192

1532

 

 

 

Digital literacy is associated with 15 events, generating 84 related tweets on social media. These tweets collectively exhibit a positive sentiment rate of 73.34%, indicating a generally favorable view of digital literacy. Gender sensitization is linked to 12 events, resulting in 67 related tweets. Impressively, the cumulative positivity rate is 79.45%, indicating strong support and positive sentiment surrounding this initiative. The concept of social responsibility is prominently linked to 32 events and has generated a significant 468 tweets. The cumulative positivity rate of 81.33% reflects widespread support and enthusiasm for this initiative. The effort to eliminate rote learning is associated with a substantial 64 events and 523 tweets. These tweets collectively exhibit a positive sentiment rate of 78.24%, suggesting a broad endorsement of moving away from rote memorization in education. Multi-disciplinary learning, while linked to fewer events (4) and generating 42 tweets, still maintains a relatively positive cumulative positivity rate of 67.25%, indicating support for a more holistic approach to education. Assessment of extracurricular activities garners significant attention, linked to 65 events and generating 348 tweets. Impressively, the cumulative positivity rate stands at 84.42%, signifying strong approval of recognizing and evaluating students' non-academic pursuits.

 

These metrics reflect the level of public engagement and positivity associated with various educational initiatives on social media. Social responsibility and the assessment of extracurricular activities receive particularly strong support, while gender sensitization and the elimination of rote learning also enjoy favorable sentiment. Exhibit -1 indicate a widespread interest and endorsement of efforts to enhance education through these initiatives created by the NEP. The exhibit shows the marginal increase in the positivity rate.

 

Exhibit 1: Positivity Rate Margin on Thoughts

 

The above chart indicates that assessment of extracurricular activities has a marginal lead over others. However, to find out the lead generation factor of the thoughts of NEP, lead generation coefficient is calculated based on the likelihood acceptance of the events among the students.

 

The term "Lead Generation" typically refers to the process of identifying and attracting potential students or leads in a business context, in this context, it seems to be used metaphorically or symbolically to measure the effectiveness or impact of these educational thoughts or initiatives.

 

Table-2: Lead Generation

Thoughts

Lead Generation

Digital literacy

7.69

Gender sensitization

8.62

Social responsibility

42.02

Eliminate rote learning

15.09

Multi-disciplinary learning

17.67

Assessment of Extracurricular activities

8.87

 

Social responsibility has the highest score among all the thoughts listed, with a score of 42.02, suggesting that it is highly effective in generating positive outcomes in education. Gender sensitization is rated higher, with a score of 8.62, indicating that it is perceived as more effective in generating positive outcomes or impact in education. Multi-disciplinary learning is considered moderately effective, with a score of 17.67, indicating its positive impact on education. The initiative to eliminate rote learning is perceived as moderately effective, with a score of 15.09 in the "Lead Generation" category. The assessment of extracurricular activities is rated moderately effective, with a score of 8.87, suggesting its role in generating positive outcomes in education. Digital literacy is considered moderately effective in generating positive outcomes or impact in the educational context, with a score of 7.69 in the "Lead Generation" category.

 

Social responsibility is perceived as the most effective educational initiative, generating a significant positive impact. Multi-disciplinary learning, elimination of rote learning, and digital literacy are all considered moderately effective in their contributions to education. Gender sensitization and the assessment of extracurricular activities also play positive roles but have slightly lower effectiveness scores. These scores reflect the perceived importance and effectiveness of these changes within the educational system

 

We prepared Pareto chart to find out focus thought created by NEP among the students under 80:20 ratio. The chart illustrates a shift in the nature of their thought-provoking ideas, specifically towards an increased focus on social responsibility. A Pareto chart is a graphical tool used to prioritize and display data, often depicting the most significant factors in a dataset. In this context, it has been employed to examine the nature of ideas generated by NEP students.

 

Exhibit 2: Pareto Chart of Lead Generation

 

The result of the Pareto chart shows that NEP students thought provoking ideas are increasing towards the social responsibility. The key takeaway from the chart is that there has been a discernible rise in the prominence of social responsibility-related ideas among these students. This suggests a growing awareness and emphasis on societal concerns, potentially indicating a positive shift in their perspective and priorities.

 

This research underscores the importance of assessing students’ sentiment and engagement on social media concerning educational initiatives linked to the NEP. It highlights that some initiatives, notably social responsibility and the evaluation of extracurricular activities, have received robust support from the public. Additionally, gender sensitization and the elimination of rote learning have garnered favorable sentiments. The significance lies in the fact that these metrics reflect a broader interest and endorsement of initiatives designed to improve education as per the NEP's vision. In essence, it suggests that these initiatives are aligning well with the expectations and aspirations of the public. Positive engagement on social media could indicate enthusiasm and support from various stakeholders, including students, parents, educators, and the general public. Extracurricular activities play a crucial role in holistic education, fostering skills and qualities beyond traditional academics. This preference may indicate that the public recognizes the value of such activities and their potential impact on students' overall development.

 

This research delves into the perceived effectiveness of the educational changes established by NEP. It identifies social responsibility as the most impactful initiative, with a significant positive influence. Conversely, it categorizes multi-disciplinary learning, elimination of rote learning, and digital literacy as moderately effective in their contributions to education. The recognition of social responsibility as the most effective initiative suggests that the public perceives a strong correlation between instilling a sense of social responsibility in students and the overall enhancement of education. This aligns with the broader trend of emphasizing character development and civic engagement in modern education. On the other hand, the categorization of multi-disciplinary learning, elimination of rote learning, and digital literacy as moderately effective indicates that while these initiatives are viewed positively, they may require further refinement or implementation to reach their full potential. It underscores the complexities involved in transforming educational practices and curriculum.

 

Pareto chart highlights the noticeable increase in the prevalence of social responsibility-related ideas among students. This observation suggests a significant shift in student perspectives and priorities towards more socially responsible thinking. This shift could be attributed to various factors, including changing societal values, evolving educational approaches, and the influence of the NEP's initiatives. It reflects an encouraging trend, indicating that students are increasingly aware of their role in society and the importance of contributing positively to their communities.

 

The findings of the research highlight the evolving nature of student ideas, indicating a growing emphasis on social responsibility in their thinking. These insights can inform education policymakers and stakeholders, helping them tailor their efforts to align more closely with public expectations and aspirations in the realm of education.

 

6. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION:

This research underscores the importance of assessing students’ sentiment and engagement on social media concerning educational initiatives linked to the NEP. It highlights that some initiatives, notably social responsibility and the evaluation of extracurricular activities, have received robust support from the public. Additionally, gender sensitization and the elimination of rote learning have garnered favorable sentiments. The significance lies in the fact that these metrics reflect a broader interest and endorsement of initiatives designed to improve education as per the NEP's vision. In essence, it suggests that these initiatives are aligning well with the expectations and aspirations of the public. Positive engagement on social media could indicate enthusiasm and support from various stakeholders, including students, parents, educators, and the general public. Extracurricular activities play a crucial role in holistic education, fostering skills and qualities beyond traditional academics. This preference may indicate that the public recognizes the value of such activities and their potential impact on students' overall development.

 

This research delves into the perceived effectiveness of the educational changes established by NEP. It identifies social responsibility as the most impactful initiative, with a significant positive influence. Conversely, it categorizes multi-disciplinary learning, elimination of rote learning, and digital literacy as moderately effective in their contributions to education. The recognition of social responsibility as the most effective initiative suggests that the public perceives a strong correlation between instilling a sense of social responsibility in students and the overall enhancement of education. This aligns with the broader trend of emphasizing character development and civic engagement in modern education. On the other hand, the categorization of multi-disciplinary learning, elimination of rote learning, and digital literacy as moderately effective indicates that while these initiatives are viewed positively, they may require further refinement or implementation to reach their full potential. It underscores the complexities involved in transforming educational practices and curriculum.

 

Pareto chart highlights the noticeable increase in the prevalence of social responsibility-related ideas among students. This observation suggests a significant shift in student perspectives and priorities towards more socially responsible thinking. This shift could be attributed to various factors, including changing societal values, evolving educational approaches, and the influence of the NEP's initiatives. It reflects an encouraging trend, indicating that students are increasingly aware of their role in society and the importance of contributing positively to their communities.

 

The findings of the research highlight the evolving nature of student ideas, indicating a growing emphasis on social responsibility in their thinking. These insights can inform education policymakers and stakeholders, helping them tailor their efforts to align more closely with public expectations and aspirations in the realm of education. The study is limited to the perspectives of undergraduate students in Karnataka, India. Further research is needed to understand the views of students from other regions and backgrounds. Additionally, the study used social media analysis, which may not be representative of all student voices.

 

7. CONCLUSION:

The National Education Policy (NEP) of India represents a significant shift in the country's approach to education. Its core principles of equitable access, quality, holistic development, flexibility, technology integration, and teacher development hold the promise of transforming the education system. This research highlighted the early outcomes from the students’ perspective. The early stages of NEP provide way to social responsibility, diverse thinking in taking personalized decision and learning courses according to their choice. However, the successful implementation of such an ambitious policy is accompanied by challenges, including resource constraints and the need for comprehensive reforms. This research is mostly conferred from the sentiments of the students from Karnataka. This research has delved into the theoretical foundations of the NEP, its key principles, and the strategies adopted for its implementation during the first three years.

 

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Received on 14.01.2024         Modified on 17.02.2024

Accepted on 10.03.2024      ©AandV Publications All right reserved

Asian Journal of Management. 2024;15(1):62-68.

DOI:  10.52711/2321-5763.2024.00011